Osnovy k maturitním otázkám

22. června 2010 v 15:23 | Darkened |  Přehled k maturitě - Angličtina
1. Jobs and proffesions, CV, job interview, my plans and future career
  1. Introduction
  2. Career plans, preferences
  3. CV, application form, application letter
  4. Job interview
  5. Character of employee, employer
  6. Manual jobs - tailor, jeweler, plumber, janitor, security, bricklayer, carpenter, ...
  7. Non-manual jobs - teacher, doctor, chemist, translator, lawyer, judge, clerk, economist, engeneer, archtect, scientist, nurse
  8. Artistic jobs - playwright, writer, painter, drawer, conductor, musiscian, dancer, actor, sculptor, composer, photographer, designer
  9. Income - the gross salary X the net salary (the income tax, the health and social insurance), extra benefis, unemloyment benefits (sickness, maternity, child benefit, pension)
  10. Full time jobs X part time jobs, temporary X permanent jobs
2. Pilsen
  1. History
  2. Places of interests - the Republic Square, St. Bartholomew´s Church, St. Mary´s plague column, the town hall (Giovanni da Statia), the Emperor´s House, Archdeacon´s House, the Franciscan Monastery, the Great Synagogue
  3. Places near Pilsen - the St. Peter Rutunda, Radyně, Kozel, Nebilovy, the Kladruby and Plasy Monastery
  4. Industry and Comerce - breweries, the Skoda Works
  5. Culture - events, theatres, cinemas, art galleries museums
  6. Educatin - libraries, West Bohemian University (Faculty of Economics, Law, Applied Sciences, Mechanical Engeneering, Electrical Engeneering, Rducation, Philosophy)
  7. Sports, recreation and leisure time - the Bolevec Lakes System, the ZOO andthe botanical garden, the meditaton garden, the swimming pools, pubs, clubs, shopping malls, ...
3. Schools and education in the Czech republic and in the United Kingdom
  1. Pre-school education (3-5) - nursery schools, kindergartens
  2. Primary education (5-11) - infant schools (3 Rs), junior schools
  3. Secondary education (11-16/17/18)
    • state schools - comprehensive schools, Secondary Modern Schools, grammar schools
    • private schools - "public/independent schools", boarding schools
· Eton, Harrow, Winchester, Rugby
· exams - the GCSE (16), the GCE A-level (18)
  1. Higher education
  • the oldest universities - Oxford, Cambridge, Edinburgh, St. Andrews
  • "redbrick universities" - 19th century, London, Manchester, Wales
  • modern universities - after WWII
  • Open University - a long distance learning institution
  • degrees - Bachelor of Arts/Science, Master of Arts/Science, postgradual studies - Ph.D.
5. the Czech Republic
· créches, kindergarten
· basic education - two grades
· secondary schools - grammar schools, secondary specialized schools, apprentice (vocational) schools, the school-leaving exam
· higher education
4. Meals (kinds of food, healthy eating, jung food, dieting)
1. Meals of the day - breakfast (Full English Breakfast), lunch, dinner (main and side dishes), supper, snack, tea, desserts
2. Beverages
3. Fast food
4. Healthy eating
5. British cuisine - fish and chips, Shepherd´s pie, steak and kidney pie, Yorkshire pudding, haggis
6. Czech cuisine - beer, moravian wines, roast pork + dumplings + cabbage, roasted sirloin in creamsauce with crainberries, tomato soup, fruit dumplings, schnitzel and potato salad
5. Housing
1. Types of houses + description of a house
2. Living in the village X in the city
3. Living in the house X in the flat
4. Rooms + furniture + electrical appliances
· hall, bathroom, toilet, kitchen, bedroom, living room, children´s room, study
5. My room
6. Theatre and music
1. British playwrights. - William Shakespeare, Oscar Wilde, Shaw, Beckett.
2. Procedure of going to the theatre.
3. Musical instruments, types of music, preferences.
7. The USA (historic events, personalities, presidents)
1. the Native Americans - 2000 tribes - different lifestyles, cultures, languages.
2. the Vikings - voyages to America.
3. 1492 - Christopher Columbus (an Italian, on behalf of Spanish King, searching for trade rout to the East, "Indians")
4. Amerigo Vespucci
5. End of the 17th ct. - the French, the Spanish, the Dutch (New Amsterodam), the English (Virginia - Jamestown)
6. supplying agricultural products and raw materials
7. decline of Indians
8. 1620 - Pilgrim Fathers - Plymouth in Massetchusetts, Puritans, Mayflower, corn
9. the Thanksgiving Day - harvest, 4th Thursday in November, turkey, cranberry sauce, apple pie
10. 18th ct. - 13 British colonies, system of triangular trade
11. 1773 the Boston Tea Party, the War of Independence (*1775), July 4th 1776 the Declaration of Independence (Thomas Jefferson), the Treaty of Paris 1783, the Constitution (Benjamin Franklin)
12. the Louisiana from France, Florida from Spain, Texas, California, New Mexico, Nevada, Arizona (war with Mexico)
13. the Missouri Compromise, the North X the South, Cotton Boom
14. Abraham Lincoln, 1860/1861 - the Confederacy → the Civil War, Emancipation Proclamation, 1865 slavery abolished, the Civil Rights movement (M. L. King)
15. 1st World War
16. 2nd World War - battles in Pacific, naval base of Pearl Harbor, invasion in France
17. Cold War, War in Korea, Vietnam
18. the War in Iraq, Afghanistan
8. The Czech Republic
1. Face, climate, population, currency,…
2. History.
3. Political system. (the Senate, the Chamber of Deputies)
4. Places of interests.
5. Festivals, famous Czechs.
9. Film and television.
1. Introduction.
2. TV chanels. Private (ITV, Channel 4, 5, Sky Sport) x State channels (BBC 1,2, World, Wales, for children).
3. Making the movie, actors, directors, awards.
4. Movies.
10. Ecology and progress.
1. Pollution of water, air, soil. - nitrogen oxides, carbondioxide, carbonmonoxide, fertilizers, pesticides, acidification.
2. Acid rain, holes in ozon layer, greenhouse effects, deforestation, extinction of animals.
3. Protection of the environment. - non-governmental organizations - methods, goals, examples.
4. Role of individuals. - recycling, energy saving, renewable energy sources, municipal transport.
11. Philip K. Dick
1. Life.
2. Implications (hlubší myšlenky), style of writing, drugs.
3. Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? - Rick Decard
4. Now Wait for Last Year. - Eric Sweetscent
5. A Scanner Darkly. - Fred, Bob Arctor
6. Minrity Report - Sophisticated, precriminel.
12. The UK (important historic events, personalities, monarchs, the Royal Family, important prime ministers of the 20th century)
1. Royal Family
- The House of Windsor, the Windsor Castle
- Queen Elizabeth II (George VI + Elizabeth) ∞ Philip Mountbatten, Duke of Edinburgh; 1953 coronation in Westminster Abbey
- Charles (Prince of Wales, heir apparent to the thrown), Diana (Princess of Wales) → William, Harry, Camilla Parker Bowles (Dutchess of Cornwall)
- The Princess Royal Ann, The Duke of York Andrew, The Earl of Wessex Edward
2. History
- the Celts (Britons) → 55 BC Roman invasion (revol Queen Boadicea, Hadrian´s Wall) → the Anglo-Saxon invasion (heptarchy, Alfred the Great) → Edward the Confessor → 1066 battle of Hastings → William the Conqueror (feudalism, language) → 1215 John Lackland
- the Hundred Years War (1337-1453)
- The Wars of Roses (1455-1485) - the House of York X the House of Lancaster → 1485 battle of Bosworth (Richard III X Henry VII Tudor)
- the Tudors - Henry VIII (1534 - the Church of England), Elizabeth I (piracy, Shakespeare, trade expeditions, 1588 Spanish Armada defeated, no heirs)
- the House of Stuart - James I (in Scotland VI) - absolutism → the Royalists X the Parliament → 1940 - 1949 the Civil War → 1949 - 1960 Cromwell Lord Protector → 1688 Glorious Revolution (William of Orange X James II)
- Colonial exansion, loss of America
- the Napoleonic Wars (1805 Cape Trafalgar - Nelson, 1815 Waterloo)
- Queen Victoria - greatest power
- the First World War - the Allies X the Central Powers - decline
- Neville Chamberlain (appeasement, the Munich Agreement) → the Second World War → Winston Churchill → the battle of Britain 1940 (Operation Sea-lion) → Operation Overlord (D-Day)
- Margareth Thatcher - 1982 Falkland War, reforms → John Maior
- Tony Blair - good relations with USA
- Gordon Brown - Labour party - critisised for some conservative social and financial reforms
13. Canada
1. General characteristic. (2. largest country in the world, 31,5 mil. inhabitants, languages)
2. Oceans, seas, gulfs, straits, islands. Articulated coast.
3. Surface - articulated. - Mountains, Mt. Logan, rivers, lakes, Niagara Falls (Eire + Ontario)
4. National Parks. - Jasper NP (glaciers, hot springs, lakes, waterfalls), Banff NP (oldest in Canada, glaciers, ice-fields), Wood Buffalo NP (largest in Canada, largest herd of free roaming buffalos)
5. Climate.
6. Natural resources. - Uranium, sulphur - the first place in the world.
7. Agriculture, industry.
8. Administrative division (10 provinces, 3 territories).
9. Political system.
- official head: Elizabeth II.
- the Governor General: Michelle Jean
- the Prime Minister: Stephen Harper (Conservative Party)
- the Parliament of Canada:
· the Senate: 105 members
· the House of Commons: 308 members, majority system of elections
· political parties: the Conservative Party of Canada, the Liberal Party of Canada, Quebec Separatist, New Democratic Party
10. Places of interests
- Toronto - largest in Canada, tzhe CN tower, SkyDome, the Distillery District, Art Gallery of Ontario, the Toronto Maple Leaves, "place where trees stand in the water"
- Niagara Falls
- Ottawa - the federal capital of Canada, the Parliament Hill, the Ottawa Senators
- Montreal - second largest French speaking city in the world, second largest in Canada, Mount Royal, confluence of St.Lawrenc and Ottawa rivers, Mount Royal Park, Notre-Dame Basilica (scenes from the religious history of Montreal), the Montreal Candaians
- Quebec City - UNESCO World Heritage
- Calgary - centre of oil production, third largest in Canada,destination for winter sports, the Calgary Flames, world´s cleanest city
- Edmonton - West Edmonton Mall
- Vancouver - Hollywood North, 2010 Winter Olympics were held there
11. History. - the Vikings from Asia, English - John Cabot 1497 Labrador, French - Jacques Cartier 1534, "canata", the Seven Years´ War (1756-1763) - the Treaty of Paris, the Quebec Act, the Dominion of Canda, the gold rush, the Statute of Westminster (independent of Britain), separate Quebec?, the G8 countries
12. National symbols (O Canada, flag - Maple Leaf, maple syrup, beaver, horse - the Mounties), Jim Carrey, Avril Lavigne, Nelly Furtado, ice hockey, lacross
14. The UK (geographical characteristic, political system, the British Commonwelth of Nations, important cities, languages)
1. 4 parts - England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland
2. Oceans, rivers, bays, traits, channels, the lake district, islands.
3. Highlands, lowlands. Ben Nevis, Snowdon.
4. The climate.
5. The natural resources, industry, agriculture.
6. The languages.
7. The political system.
- the Prime Minister: David Cameron (Conservative Party), + 19 ministers (Secretaries)No. 10 Downing Street + Whitehall
- the Parliament - today´s situation = Hung Parliament
· the House of Commons - 650 MPs, majority system, shadow Cabinet (Labour Party), the Speaker
· the House of Lords - formal, no elections, 750 members (representatives of the nobility, of the Church of England, moset senior judges), Lord Chancellor
· parties: the Labour Party (center-left, Gordon Brown), the Conservative Party (centre-right, David Cameron), the Liberal Party (Nick Clegg)
8. Important cities - Edinburgh (castle, Palace of Holyroodhouse), London, Dover (white chalk cliffs), Canterbury (C. cathedral, archbishop), York (York minster, archbishop), Stratfor-upon-Avon, Cambridge (2. oldest university in Britain), Oxford (oldest university in Britain 12th ct., Harry Potter), Warwick (medieval castle), the Bath (spas, Romans)
15. Travelling
1. The reasons why people travel. (bussines trip, seaside/resort holiday, sightseeing trip)
2. Different means of transport. - Advantages, disadvantages.
3. At the airport. - Arrivals, Departments, security check (ticket, documents, passport), luggage (trolly), pay excess luggage, call to the gate, board on the plain, on the board, seat belts, flight attendant, collect baggage from the claim (pás).
4. Experience and future plans.
16. Sports and games
1. Introduction. (PE at schools)
2. Indoor sports (sport facilities) X Outdoor sports.
3. Summer sports X Winter sports X All season sports.
4. Individual sports X Team sports.
5. Apparaturs - gymnastic (rings, beam, horizontal bar, parallel bars).
6. The Olympic games. - 1. 776 BC Olympia, 1896 Pierre de Coubertin. Symbol - five different coloured circles on the white field. World Cup. Championships. Tournaments.
7. The Czech Republic - ice hockey, football, aerobic, cycling, in-line skating.
8. GB - football (Manchester United, the Wembley Arena), rugby, cricket, lawn tennis, (Wimbledon Tournament), university rowing (Oxford X Cambridge).
9. USA - football, basketball (NBA Championship), baseball, ice-hockey, lacrosse (Indian game).
10. Money and sports, drug abuse, violence in sports.
17. London
1. Thames, Greater London - 12 mil. people, the City of London + 32 boroughs
2. History. - the Celts, the Romans (43 AD Londonium = a waled place situated high), capital of the Britons and Norman kings, 1665 a plague epidemy, 1666 the Great Fire of London (→ Christopher Wren), Victorian Age (Houses of Parliament, Covent Garden, Opera House, typical style of red bricks, network of railways and underground lines), WWII - serious damages.
3. Shopping. - Oxford Street (Selfridges, John Lewis, Marks and Spencer), Regent Street, Picadilly, Mall, Covent Garden, Soho.
4. Parks. - St. James´s Park (oldest), Hyde Park (the Marble Arch, Speaker´s Corner), Kensington Gardens (Albert Memorial, K. Palace), Regent´s Park (elegant, lakes, zoo), Green Park
5. Culture. - the Royal Festival Hall, the Queen Elizabeth Hall, the Barbican Hall, the Royal Opera House (home to the Royal Ballet and Opera), The National Theatre (consists of 3 theatres)
6. Museums and Galleries. - British Museum (British Library), The Natural History Museum, The Victoria and Albert Museum, the Science Museum, the Geological Museum, London Dungeon, Madame Tussaud´s, Sherlock Holmes Museum, the Tate Gallery.
7. Transport. - River transport (significant port), underground (the tube, the oldest in the world), buses (double-deckers, single-deckers, Green Line coaches), rail (Victoria Station), five airports (Heathrow, Gatwick), black taxis (cabs).
8. Places of Interests. - the Tower of London (crown jewels, the execution block prison, Yeomen Warders = Beefearers, Ceremony of the Keys), St. Paul´s Cathedral, Tower Bridge, the Houses of Parliament (of Lords - red, of Commons - green), Big Ben, Westminster Abbey (the Coronation Chair, Poet´s Corner), Downing Street, Buckingham Palace, Trafalgar Square (the National Gallery).
18. New York
1. Confluence, 18 mil. inhabitants, 5 boroughs, world center of everything, the melting Pot, the Big Apple.
2. History - Native Americans → 1524 Giovanni da Verazzano → 1609 Henry Hudson → 1624 New Amsterdam → 1664 English Colony (Duke of York) → 2 years capital of USA → grid street plan, 1886 Statue of Liberty → 20th ct. - the first sky scrapers, WWII - took refuge Rubinstein, Einstein → 1945 seat of UN → 2001 terrorist attack.
3. Town planning - east Manhattan - self-sufficient communities, grid system (12 avenues north to south numbering in the east, 155 streets east to west numbering from the south), exceptions - Broadway, the southern tip, Central Park. Manhattan - downtown, midtown, uptown.
4. Bridges - 1. the Brooklyn Bridge, the george Washington Bridge, the Verrazano Narrows Bridge (very long suspension bridge).
5. Culture and entertainment. - Times Sqaure, Broadway, Radio City Music Hall (Grammy Awards), Carnegie Hall, Lincoln Center (New York State Theatre, Metropolitan opera House, Avery Fisher hall - home to NY Philharmonic Orchestra)
6. Museums and Galleries - 5th Avenue along the Central Park - "Museum Mile", Metropolitan Museum of Art, Guggenheim Museum, Frick Collection, the American Museum of Natural History., the Museum of Modern Art (photographs, paintings, films, highstyle functional objects).
7. Shopping - 5th Avenue, Broadway, Madison Avenue.
8. Schools - Columbia University (oldest), City University of NY, NY University.
9. Sports - stadiums Yankee, Shea, Madison Square Garden (the Knicks, the Rangers), Flushing Meadows park (tennis championship).
10. Transport - ferries, subway (most complicated system in the world), coach and railway (Grand Central Terminal, Pennsylvania Station), air transport (JFK airport, Newark International Airport, La Guardia Airport)
11. Places of Interest.
- the Statue of Liberty ("Liberty enlightening the world", 1886, Liberty island, inscription 7th July 1776)
- Ellis Island
- Wall Street (former wall, the first stock exchange, a financial center, Citibank, Bank of NY)
- the World Trade Center (11 September 2001, twin towers)
- Madison Square (the Madison Square Garden Center)
- the Empire State Building (102 stories, Art-Deco Style)
- the New York Public Library
- the Chrysler Building (automobile company, Van Alen - the Vertex (steel spire), Art Deco)
- the Grand Central Terminal (triumphal gateway to the city)
- the UN Headquarter (the Conference Building, the General Assembly, the Secretariat, Knotted Gun)
- Times Square (the Times Tower, New Year)
- Rockefeller Center (summer-café, winter - open-ice skating ring, X-mas tree, Prometheus sculpture, the General Electric Building, Radio City Music Hall, stores, facilities, reastaurants, theatres,...)
- St. Patrick´s Cathedral
- Central Park (memorial Strawberry Fields - "Imagine", Cleopatra´s Needle, zoo, alkes, ponds)
19. China Miéville
1. Introduction - How I found him.
2. The Scar. - Bas-Lag, hijacked ships, transformed criminals.
3. New Weird. - Regenerate the literature, deviate from current commercial clichés.
4. King Rat.
5. Short stories - Foundations.
6. Life.
20. Conservation of wildlife
1. Introduce - relation to animals.
2. Various species, kinds of animals.
· carnivorous X herbivorous X omnivorous X insectivorous
· snakes X mammals X reptiles X insect X birds X amphibiants X fish
· wild X domestic animals, pets
3. Kinds of habitats (polar areas, tundra, taiga, woodland, deserts, grasslands, tropical rainforests).
4. Endangered species (Amur Leopard, Elephants, Monarch Butterflies, Polar Bear, Black Spider Monkey).
5. Reasons of extinction (pouching, hunting, deforestation, enlarging of cities)
6. Suggestions to protect animals.
7. Slaughterhouses (jatka), animal testing, fur farms, whale hunting, zoo.
8. Endemits in Australia. (kangaroo, koala, wombat)
21. Australia
1. General characteristic - the only country covering the hole continent, the lowest population density, 6th largest country in the world, the land of the antipodes, 20 mil. inhabitants.
2. Oceans, seas, gulfs, straits, islands, surface, rivers, lakes.
3. The Climate.
4. Natural resources (bauxite - 1st in the world), argriculture (sheep), industry.
5. Administrative division. - 6 states, 2 territories (Australian Capital Territory!)
6. Important cities.
7. Political System.
- official head: Elizabeth II.
- the Governor General: Ms Quentin Bryce
- the Prime Minister: Kevin Rudd (Apology to the Aborigines)
- the Federal Parliament of Australia:
· the Senate - 76 members, the proportional system of elections every 6 years
· the House of Representatives - 148 members, the majority system every 3 years
- the federal constitution: January 1, 1901
8. History. - The Aborigines → Marco Polo → 1606 William Janszoon (Dutch) → Luiz Vaez de Torres (Spanish), Abel Tasman → 1770 James Cook reached New South Wales → 1787 "First fleet" (mostly convicts) → the gold rushes (1850s, 1890s) → January 1 1901 the Commonwealth of Australia → important role in both of the World Wars.
9. Nature. - Koala, kangaroo, wombat, platypus, echidna.
22. Health-care
1. Introduction. - the importance of being healthy, healthy life-style
2. Children diseases, civilization diseases, incurable diseases, skin diseases, serious diseases.
3. Syptoms → At the doctor´s → At the pharmacy (medicaments, ointments, drops,…)
4. Specialists.
5. Alternative medicine. (Homeopathy, osteopathy, iridology, aromatherapy, acupuncture, acupressure)
23. Press
1. Introduction - importance of press,…
2. Classification - tabloids (The Sun, The Mirror, The Star, The Daily Mai, The Daily Expressl) x broadsheets (The Daily Telegraph, The Independent, The Guardian, The Times) x mags (the Economist, Private Eye, Radio News, OK!, Premiere, Cosmopolitan)
3. The Sunday Papers. (many supplements, regional x national papers)
4. Press in GB
5. Press in CZ
6. E-printed/on-line media. (advantages/disadvantages)
24. USA (geographical characteristics, political system, important cities and places of interest)
1. Introduction (4th largest country, 50 states + federal district - separately Alaska and the Hawaian Islands, over 300 mil. inhabitants)
2. Geographical characteristic - oceans, gulfs, rivers, mountains, lakes.
3. The Climate. (Death Valley - hottest place)
4. Industry. (automobile), agriculture, natural resources (iron ore, coal, phosphates)
5. Economy. - world´s largest high GDP (gross domestic product), 3.producer of oil, 1. producer of electrical and nuclear energy, trading partners, top companies: General Motors, General Electric, Ford Motors.
6. Political system.
- a federal republic, 50 states + the District of Columbia
- the Constitution - the Preamble, Articles I-VII,27 Amendments to the Constitution )1. Bill of Rights, 13. abolished slavery, 19.women´s suffrage)
- the system of checks and balances
- the executive power
· the President - four-year term, elected twice, at least 35 years, veto legislation, The State of the Union Message, White house
· the Vice-President: joe Biden
· The Cabinet - 15 departments + examples
· presidential election - indirect, 538 electors
- the legislative power
· the Senate - 100 members, six-year term, at least 30 years old
· the House of Representatives - 435 congressmen/women, two-year term, at least 25 years old
- Political parties:
· The Republican Party = G.O.P., elephant, for wealth, conservative, centre-right, Abraham Lincoln, Dwight Eisenhower, Bush Sr. and Jr.
· The Democratic Party = D, donkey, for poorer, liberal, centre-left, Woodrow Wilson, Bill Clinton, JF Kennedy, Barrack Obama
7. Places of interest:
· New York
· Washington DC - the Capitol building, the White House
· Boston - 1773 Boston Tea Party, "the Cradle of Liberty"
· Cambridge - Harvard University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
· Chicago - gagsters (Al Capone), livestock and grain market
· Las Vegas - rodeo festivals, casino gambling
· The Monument Valley - "Deser Gothic", red stone columns, spires, chimneys
· The Grand Canyon
· The Yosemite Valley National Park - highest waterfall in USA
· The Yellowstone National Park - oldest in USA, widest geyser area (Old Faithful Geyser)
· Mt. Rushmore - collosal portrait heads (Washington, Jefferson, Lincoln, Roosevelt)
25. Fashion
1. Introduction
2. Contemporary trends, influences. (hip hop, punk, rock, metal, pop, emo, armystyle)
3. Fashion (trends)and you (everyday situation, casual wear, dressing up for special occasions - formal clothes)
4. Accesories (jewelery, shoes, glasses, bags, belts)
5. Hairstyle, make-up, cosmetics.

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